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Expiation cover and Propitiation place 遮罪盖和平息处

遮罪盖 ~= 平息处


遮罪盖 Expiation Cover

出埃及记-Exodus
25:16-22 必将我所要赐给你的见证版,放在柜里。要用纯金作遮罪盖,长二肘半,宽一肘半。要用金子锤出两个基路伯,安在遮罪盖的两端。这端作一个基路伯,那端作一个基路伯,两端的基路伯要与遮罪盖接连一块。两个基路伯要在盖上展开翅膀,遮掩遮罪盖;基路伯要脸对脸,朝着遮罪盖。要将遮罪盖安在柜的上边,又将我所要赐给你的见证版放在柜里。我要在那里与你相会,又要从见证的柜遮罪盖上两个基路伯中间,和你说我所要吩咐你传给以色列人的一切事。

And you shall put into the ark the testimony which I shall give you. And you shall make an expiation cover of pure gold: two and a half cubits shall be its length, and one and a half cubits, its width. And you shall make two cherubim of gold; of beaten work you shall make them, at the two ends of the expiation cover. And make one cherub at one end and one cherub at the other end; of one piece with the expiation cover you shall make the cherubim on its two ends. And the cherubim shall spread out their wings above the cover, covering the expiation cover with their wings, with their faces toward one another; the faces of the cherubim shall be toward the expiation cover. And you shall put the expiation cover on top of the Ark, and into the Ark you shall put the testimony that I shall give you. And there I will meet with you, and I will speak with you from above the expiation cover, from between the two cherubim which are upon the Ark of the Testimony, of everything which I will give you in commandment to the children of Israel.

遮罪蓋,相當於羅3:25和來9:5的平息處,乃是約櫃的蓋,表徵基督作神公義律法的遮蓋,也作神在恩典中與祂的贖民相會,對他們說話的地方。因此, 至聖所約櫃上的遮罪蓋,等於施恩的寶座,就是那住在我們靈裏的基督。(來4:16)按照啟8:3,這也是神權柄的寶座,就是神行政的寶座。用以作這蓋 的純金,表徵基督純淨的神聖性情。

26:34 又要把遮罪盖安在至圣所内见证的柜上,
And you shall put the expiation cover upon the Ark of the Testimony in the Holy of Holies.

31:7 就是会幕、见证的柜和其上的遮罪盖、会幕的一切器具,
The Tent of Meeting, and the Ark of the Testimony and the expiation cover that is on it, and all the utensils of the tent,

35:11-12 就是帐幕和帐幕的罩棚,并帐幕的盖、钩子、板、闩、柱子和卯座,柜、柜的杠、遮罪盖、和遮掩柜的幔子,
The tabernacle, its tent, and its covering, its clasps and its boards, its bars, its pillars, and its sockets; The Ark and its poles, the expiation cover, and the veil of the screen;

37:6-9 用纯金作遮罪盖,长二肘半,宽一肘半。用金子锤出两个基路伯,安在遮罪盖的两端。这端作一个基路伯,那端作一个基路伯,两端的基路伯与遮罪盖接连一块。两个基路伯在盖上展开翅膀,遮掩遮罪盖;基路伯是脸对脸,朝着遮罪盖
And he made an expiation cover of pure gold: two and a half cubits was its length, and one and a half cubits, its width. And he made two cherubim of gold; of beaten work he made them, at the two ends of the expiation cover, One cherub at the one end and one cherub at the other end; of one piece with the expiation cover he made the cherubim at its two ends. And the cherubim spread out their wings above the cover, covering the expiation cover with their wings, with their faces toward one another; the faces of the cherubim were toward the expiation cover.

40:20 又把见证的版放在柜里,把杠穿在柜的两边,把遮罪盖安在柜上。
Then he took the testimony and put it into the Ark, and he set the poles onto the Ark and put the expiation cover upon the Ark above it.

历代记上-1 Chronicles
28:11 大卫将殿的廊子、旁屋、府库、楼房、内室、和安放遮罪盖之至圣所的样式指示他儿子所罗门;
Then David gave Solomon his son the pattern of the portico of the temple and its buildings and its storehouses and its upper rooms and its inner rooms and the building for the propitiation cover;

平息处 Propitiation Place

出埃及记-Exodus
30:6 要把坛放在见证柜前的幔子外,对着见证柜上的遮罪盖,就是我要与你相会的地方
And you shall put it before the veil that is over the Ark of the Testimony, before the expiation cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with you.

民数记-Numbers
7:89 摩西进会幕要与耶和华说话的时候,听见见证柜的遮罪盖以上、二基路伯中间,有向他说话的声音,他就向耶和华说话。
And when Moses went into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him, he heard the voice speaking to him from above the expiation cover that was upon the Ark of the Testimony, from between the two cherubim; and he spoke to Him.

罗马书-Romans
3:25 神摆出基督耶稣作平息处,是凭着祂的血,藉着人的信,为要在神以宽容越过人先时所犯的罪上,显示祂的义;
Whom God set forth as a propitiation place through faith in His blood, for the demonstrating of His righteousness, in that in His forbearance God passed over the sins that had previously occurred,

這是出25:17約櫃上遮罪的蓋所豫表的。約櫃是神與人相會的地方,其中放著十條誡命的律法,藉其聖別和公義的要求,暴露並定罪前來接觸神之人的罪。但藉著約 櫃的蓋,連同遮罪日灑在其上遮罪的血,罪人的整個光景就完全得著遮蓋。因此神能在這遮罪蓋上,與干犯祂公義律法的百姓相會,即使在那載著神的榮耀,並遮掩 櫃蓋之基路伯的注視下,在行政上也絲毫不牴觸祂的公義。如此就平息了人與神之間的難處,使神能寬恕、憐憫人,而向人施恩。這豫表基督作神的羔羊,除去人與 神出事的罪,(約1:29)滿足了神一切聖別、公義和榮耀的要求,平息了人與神之間的關係。因此,神能越過人先時所犯的罪。為著顯示祂的義,神必須這樣 作。這就是本節所指的。

約櫃的蓋,在希伯來文是kap-poreth,卡培瑞特,其字根意遮蓋。七十士希臘文譯本將這字譯作 hilasterion,希拉斯特利昂,意即平息(含寬恕、憐憫意─來8:12之寬恕及路18:13之可憐,原文均與此字同源)的地方,欽定英文譯本譯為 mercy seat(憐憫座),中文和合本譯為施恩座,指神憐憫人向人施恩的地方。保羅在來9:5說到約櫃上的蓋,也用希拉斯特利昂這字稱之。在羅3:25就用這字說明 約櫃上的座(蓋),如何豫表基督乃是神擺出的平息處。

除希拉斯特利昂一字外,新約還用兩個與其同源的字,說到基督為人除罪,平息人與神 之間的關係,一個是hilaskomai,希拉斯哥邁,(來2:17)指平息的事,就是成就平息,滿足一方的要求,而使雙方和息相安;另一個是 hilasmos,希拉斯模斯,(約壹2:2,4:10)指平息物,就是平息的祭物。基督為我們的罪成就了平息,(來2:17)如此祂就成了我們與神之間的 平息物,就是平息的祭物,(約壹2:2,4:10)也就作了我們在神面前得享平息,並神向我們施恩的地方,就是約櫃的蓋所豫表的。(來9:5。)

希伯来书-Hebrews
9:4-5 有金香坛,和四面包金的约柜,柜里有盛吗哪的金罐、和亚伦发过芽的杖、并两块约版;柜上面有荣耀的基路伯覆荫着平息处;关于这几件,现在不能一一细说。
Having a golden altar and the ark of the covenant covered about everywhere with gold, in which were the golden pot that had the manna and Aaron’s rod that budded and the tablets of the covenant, And above it cherubim of glory overshadowing the propitiation place, concerning which it is not now the time to speak in detail.


遮罪 Expiation


出埃及记-Exodus
32:30 到了第二天,摩西对百姓说,你们犯了大罪;我如今要上耶和华那里去,或者可以为你们遮罪
And on the next day Moses said to the people, You have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up to Jehovah; perhaps I can make expiation for your sin.

利未记-Leviticus
16:12-16 他要拿一个香炉,从耶和华面前的坛上盛满火炭,又拿一满捧捣细的馨香之香,都带入幔内,在耶和华面前,把香放在火上,使香的烟云遮掩见证柜上的遮罪盖,免得他死亡;也要取些公牛的血,用指头弹在遮罪盖上朝东的一面,又在遮罪盖的前面用指头弹血七次。随后他要宰那为百姓作赎罪祭的公山羊,把羊的血带入幔内,弹在遮罪盖的上面和前面,好像弹公牛的血一样。他要因以色列人诸般的不洁、过犯,就是他们一切的罪,为至圣所遮罪;也要为那在他们不洁之中与他们同住的会幕,照样而行。
And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from the altar before Jehovah, with his hands full of finely ground sweet incense, and bring it inside the veil. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before Jehovah, that the cloud of the incense may cover the expiation cover that is over the Testimony, so that he does not die. And he shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger upon the expiation cover toward the east, and before the expiation cover he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times. Then he shall slaughter the goat of the sin offering, which is for the people, and bring its blood inside the veil, and do with its blood as he did with the blood of the bull, and sprinkle it upon the expiation cover and before the expiation cover. And he shall make expiation for the Holy of Holies because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel and because of their transgressions, for all their sins. And so he shall do for the Tent of Meeting, which dwells with them in the midst of their uncleannesses.

因著11至15章所描述神子民消極的光景,按照神的觀念,在祂神聖的經綸中,乃有救贖的需要。因為舊約時期不是成功救贖的時候,所以需要有要來之救贖的豫表和影兒。這個影兒就是本章中的遮罪。舊約中藉著動物祭牲所完成的遮罪乃是豫表,指向新約中基督所完成的救贖。

遮罪,希伯來文字根意,遮蓋。這字的名詞,在2節和出25:17譯為遮罪蓋。在七十士希臘文譯本和新約裏,所用這希臘文的字根,在羅3:25,來2:17,約壹2:2,4:10譯為平息,意思是使(兩方之間的光景)得以平息。在遮罪日,贖罪祭的血被帶進至聖所,彈在遮罪蓋,就是約櫃的蓋上,(14~15,)約櫃的蓋 遮蓋了約櫃裏的十誡;(出25:16)這表徵前來接觸神的人,其罪已經被遮蓋,但還未被除去。(見來1:3註3。)如此,墮落的人與神之間的光景,就得以平 息,但還未完全解決。直到基督來,獻上自己作平息的祭物,除去人的罪,纔成功了救贖。(來9:12,2:17,約壹2:2,4:10,約1:29。)

以赛亚书-Isaiah
47:11 但祸患必临到你身,你不知它的由来;灾害必落在你身上,你不能藉遮罪而除掉;所不知道的毁灭,必忽然临到你身。
But evil will come upon you, And you will not know its origin; Disaster will fall upon you Which you cannot propitiate for; Desolation will come upon you suddenly, About which you do not know.


平息的祭物 Offering of Expiation

出埃及记-Exodus
30:10 亚伦一年一次,要在坛的四角上为坛遮罪;他一年一次,要用遮罪之赎罪祭的血,为坛遮罪,作为世世代代的定例。这坛在耶和华面前乃为至圣。
And Aaron shall make expiation on its horns once a year; with the blood of the sin offering of expiation once a year he shall make expiation for it throughout your generations. It is most holy to Jehovah.

约翰一书-1 John
2:2 祂为我们的罪,作了平息的祭物,不是单为我们的罪,也是为所有的世人。
And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for those of the whole world.

约翰一书-1 John
4:10 不是我们爱神,乃是神爱我们,差祂的儿子,为我们的罪作了平息的祭物,在此就是爱了。
Herein is love, not that we have loved God but that He loved us and sent His Son as a propitiation for our sins.

主耶穌基督為我們的罪,將自己當作祭物獻給神,(來9:28)不僅為著救贖我們,更為著滿足神的要求,平息我們與神之間的關係。因此,祂是我們在神面前平息的祭物。

平息的事 Propitiation

但以理书-Daniel
9:24 为你本国之民和你的圣城,已经截定了七十个七,要终止过犯,了结罪恶,为罪孽成就平息,带进永远的义,封住异象和豫言,并膏至圣所。
Seventy weeks are apportioned for your people and for your holy city, to close the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make propitiation for iniquity, and to bring in the righteousness of the ages, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the Holy of Holies.

希伯来书-Hebrews
2:17 所以祂凡事该与祂的弟兄一样,为要在关于神的事上,成为怜悯、忠信的大祭司,好为百姓的罪成就平息
Hence He should have been made like His brothers in all things that He might become a merciful and faithful High Priest in the things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.

耶穌為我們的罪成就了平息,滿足了神公義的要求,平息了我們與神之間的關係,使神能和順的恩待我們。

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